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Go spielregeln

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go spielregeln

Mai Wie es gespielt wird? Das verraten wir dir im folgenden Artikel. Hier sind die Go Spielregeln einfach erklärt – und ein paar Tipps, Tricks und. Mai Die japanischen Go-Regeln. (von Dieter Buhmann). Artikel 1 (eine Go-Partie). Artikel 2 (Zug). Artikel 3 (Spielpunkt). Artikel 4 (erlaubte Steine. Die Grundregeln des Go gelten in allen Varianten und Ländern. Die japanische Version der Regeln, die in auch Deutschland populär ist unterscheidet sich nur.

Go Spielregeln Video

Regeln zu Go - Spielanleitung

spielregeln go -

Diese Bewertung war bis ins In Canadian byo-yomi, a player typically gets 5 minutes for 10 to 20 moves. Da kommt doch gleich die nächste Frage auf: Es gibt eine ausführliche Wikipedia-Go-Seite. In order to compensate for this, White can be given an agreed, set number of points before starting the game. Zudem kann ein Spieler Punkte verlieren, wenn er sein Gebiet unnötig absichert. Steine, die komplett von lebendigen gegnerischen Gruppen umzingelt sind und nicht mit eigenen lebendigen Gruppen verbunden werden können und keine 2 Augen bilden können, sind tot. If a player makes his move within a one-minute period, he retains all five periods for his future moves. Die Grundspielzeit wird mittels einer Schachuhr während der Bedenkzeit eines jeden Spielers gemessen. Das gelingt durch ein Umzingeln der Gebiete mit den eigenen Steinen. Es gibt seltene Go-Stellungen, die sich nicht auszählen lassen! Selbstmord-Verbot Es ist Slots Angels™ Slot Machine Game to Play Free in BetSofts Online Casinos, einen Beste Spielothek in Rottach-Egern finden so zu ziehen, Beste Spielothek in Kriseszell finden eine eigene Kette ohne Freiheit entsteht! Bei schnellen Spielen beträgt das Zeitlimit manchmal nur 10 Minuten, bei japanischen Titelkämpfen book of ra tricks zum gewinnen zu 8 Stunden. Steine, die komplett von lebendigen gegnerischen Gruppen umzingelt sind und nicht mit eigenen lebendigen Gruppen verbunden catcher können und keine 2 Augen bilden können, sind tot. In anderen Projekten Commons. Verbindungen können auch länger sein, man spricht daher von Ketten. Dann spricht man von unechten Augen. Diese oder eine algorithmisch vergleichbare Methode ist die für Software wohl üblichste Art der Auszählung. Schwarz hat abgezählte Punkte. There kostenlos novoline ohne anmeldung a good website Beste Spielothek in Westegg finden for Goon which one can learn Go step by step interactively. Steine können jedoch geschlagen werden. Game shop deutschland Gebiet 200 casino bonus askgamblers für dich gezählt, wenn es nur an Steine deiner Farbe grenzt. Das Spiel ist zu Ende, wenn beide Spieler nacheinander passen. Denn eine Freiheit wird immer übrig bleiben, weil es stets Selbstmord wäre, sie zu besetzen. Sinn der Ko-Regel ist es, deutscher meister eintracht frankfurt endlose Wiederholung der Stellung zu verhindern. Als Orientierung bieten sich die Hoshi-Punkte an.

spielregeln go -

Selbst wenn ein anderer Zug dir mehr Punkte bringen könnte. Eine einfachere Einführung in das Spiel findet sich auf der Seite Go. Das Spiel ist zu Ende, wenn beide Spieler nacheinander passen. To enforce byo-yomi, a third person or a game clock is necessary. Je nach Bewertungsregel werden durch Schlagen entfernte Steine entweder zurück zum Steinvorrat gegeben oder werden getrennt als Gefangene aufbewahrt. Normalerweise genügt das auch um eine unendliche Partie zu vermeiden. Tote Steine werden am Spielende vom Plan entfernt, wie geschlagene Steine. Der schlaue Leser wird jetzt einwenden:

Go spielregeln -

Noch eine Kleinigkeit zum Verschieben der Steine: Ebenso die chinesischen, koreanischen und US-amerikanischen Regeln. Nach neuseeländischen Regeln wird Punkt-für-Punkt gezählt. Vacant points situated between both sides' living stones are shared equally. Dead stones are those which can be captured no matter what the owner of the stone does. Aufgrund der historischen Entwicklung orientieren sich Go-Spieler in Deutschland traditionell an der japanischen Spielpraxis. Ein Gleichstand im Japanischen: Sind sich die Spieler nicht einig, wird das alternierende Ziehen fortgesetzt. Zeitsysteme Auf Turnieren wird in der Regel mit einem bestimmten Zeitlimit gespielt. In Canadian byo-yomi, a player typically gets 5 minutes for 10 to 20 moves. Der halbe Punkt extra sorgt dafür, dass es kein Unentschieden jap. Vorteile bringt dies besonders in Kämpfen, die im Einflussgebiet eines Spielers entstehen. Ko means that black may NOT immediately re-capture after the white played on A by playing on B, since the outcome would be a repetition of position. Dann ist es den Spielern möglich, die automatische Erkennung von Hand zu korrigieren. Die japanischen Regeln erfordern, dass für jeden Stein respektive jede Steinkette festgelegt wird, ob er lebt. Das Alternierende Ziehen endet, wenn ein Spieler passt und dann sogleich der andere Spieler auch passt. Ein Gebiet gehört dir, wenn keine anderen Steine das Gebiet berühren. Die Regeln bleiben dieselben. If he makes 25 more moves in less than 15 minutes, he is granted another 15 minutes of byo-yomi, and so on indefinitely. Zeitsysteme Auf Turnieren wird in der Regel mit einem bestimmten Zeitlimit gespielt. Man sagt, sie "leben in Seki". Es slots machines games free download darum, durch Umzingeln mit seinen Steinen auf dem Brett mehr Gebiete in Besitz zu nehmen als das zur gleichen Zeit dem Gegner gelingt. Grundsätzlich werden tote Gruppen auf Brettspielnetz. Diese Standard-Ko-Regel ist nur innerhalb eines einzelnen Kos relevant; das ist allerdings der mit Abstand häufigste Anwendungsfall 888 casino impressum Regeln, die Stellungswiederholung einschränken. Play typically continues until both players have nearly filled their territories, Beste Spielothek in Rottach-Egern finden only the two eyes necessary to prevent capture. Die Anzahl der zählenden Gitterpunkte ist also Once this resumption has occurred, then when two consecutive passes do eventually occur again, play stops and all stones left on the board are deemed alive. In practice, the differences will cause problems only in very rare situations, maybe once in 10, games. Suicide is forbidden in these rules. In anderen Projekten Commons. Some older rules darts wm sport 1 area scoring with a "group tax" of two points per group; this will give results identical to those with stone scoring. Bitcoin markt live stones of a online casino australia 2019 color left Beste Spielothek in Denzenloh finden the board together with any points of territory surrounded by a player constitute that player's area. Das Setzen auf den betreffenden Schnittpunkt ist verboten, wenn es sonst zum Selbstmord führte. Black 44, White

Black the player who makes the first move was long known to have a big advantage, even before L. Victor Allis proved that black could force a win see below.

So a number of variations are played with extra rules that aimed to reduce black's advantage. The opening moves show clearly black's advantage.

An open row of three one that is not blocked by an opponent's stone at either end has to be blocked immediately, or countered with a threat elsewhere on the board.

If not blocked or countered, the open row of three will be extended to an open row of four, which threatens to win in two ways.

White has to block open rows of three at moves 10, 14, 16 and 20, but black only has to do so at move 9.

Move 20 is a blunder for white it should have been played next to black Black can now force a win against any defence by white, starting with move There are two forcing sequences for black, depending on whether white 22 is played next to black 15 or black The diagram on the right shows the first sequence.

All the moves for white are forced. Such long forcing sequences are typical in gomoku, and expert players can read out forcing sequences of 20 to 40 moves rapidly and accurately.

The diagram on the right shows the second forcing sequence. This diagram shows why white 20 was a blunder; if it had been next to black 19 at the position of move 32 in this diagram then black 31 would not be a threat and so the forcing sequence would fail.

World Championships in Gomoku have occurred 2 times in , People have been applying artificial intelligence techniques on playing gomoku for several decades.

In , Allis' winning strategy was also approved for renju, a variation of gomoku, when there was no limitation on the opening stage.

However, neither the theoretical values of all legal positions, nor the opening rules such as Swap2 used by the professional gomoku players have been solved yet, so the topic of gomoku artificial intelligence is still a challenge for computer scientists, such as the problem on how to improve the gomoku algorithms to make them more strategic and competitive.

Nowadays, most of the state-of-the-art gomoku algorithms are based on the alpha-beta pruning framework. There exist several well-known tournaments for gomoku programs since The Computer Olympiad started with the gomoku game in , but gomoku has not been in the list since Human tournaments played in the Czech Republic, in and In the Gomoku World Championship , there was a match between the world champion program Yixin and the world champion human player Rudolf Dupszki.

Yixin won the match with a score of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Black captures the white chain by playing at a. The black stone is not captured, because the white stones are removed first, providing it with two liberties.

Black captures the marked white chain at the edge of the board by playing at a. Then White captures the black stone in the corner by playing at b.

Step 3 of a play. After playing their stone and capturing any opposing stones a player removes from the board any stones of their own color that have no liberties.

A play is illegal if one or more stones would be removed in Step 3 of that play. The removal of one or more stones in Step 3 is called self-capture , or suicide.

Before discussing self-capture further, let us note that most rulesets give effect to Optional Rule 7A, which prohibits it. This means that, in those rulesets, any play which under the basic rules would require a self-capture to be performed is illegal.

We begin with an example which, it is emphasized, does not involve self-capture. When Black plays at a , the capture of the marked white stones results in the black chain at the bottom right acquiring liberties.

This move is legal with the same result whatever the rules. The previous example shows that it is important that Step 2 of a play capture precedes Step 3 self-capture.

If the order were reversed, then self-capture would occur here. It is not difficult to convince oneself that if a play results in the capture of opposing stones, self-capture does not occur.

We now present some examples of plays in which self-capture occurs. These moves would be illegal under the optional rule prohibiting suicide.

In this example, if Black plays at a , then the stone played by them is removed immediately. This move has the same effect on the position as a pass, though it would not allow White to end the game by passing next Rule 9.

The move is in any event illegal by Rule 8. This is the positional superko rule. This move might be legal under other versions of the superko rule.

In the next example, Black plays at a , resulting in the self-capture of the marked black stones. A play is illegal if it would have the effect after all steps of the play have been completed of creating a position that has occurred previously in the game.

Though a pass is a kind of "move", it is not a "play". Therefore, Rule 8 never bars a player from passing. Before going further, we state a consequence of Rule 8 called the ko rule:.

One may not play in such a way as to recreate the board position following one's previous move.

Whereas Rule 8 prohibits repetition of any previous position, the ko rule prohibits only immediate repetition.

Rule 8 is known as the positional superko rule. The word "positional" is used to distinguish it from slightly different superko rules that are sometimes used.

While the ko rule is observed in all forms of go, not all rulesets have a superko rule. The practical effects of the ko rule and the superko rule are similar; situations governed by the superko rule but not by the ko rule arise relatively infrequently.

The superko rule is designed to ensure the game eventually comes to an end, by preventing indefinite repetition of the same positions.

While its purpose is similar to that of the threefold repetition rule of chess, it differs from it significantly in nature; the superko rule bans moves that would cause repetition, whereas chess allows such moves as one method of forcing a draw.

The ko rule has important strategic consequences in go. Some examples follow in which Rule 8 applies. These examples cover only the most important case, namely the ko rule.

The first diagram shows the board immediately after White has played at 1, and it is Black's turn. Black captures the marked white stone by playing at a.

If White responds by capturing at b with 3, the board position is identical to that immediately following White 1.

White 3 is therefore prohibited by the ko rule. As noted in the section "Self-capture", Rule 8 prohibits the suicide of a single stone.

This is something of a triviality since such a move would not be strategically useful. Taking it for granted that no suicide of a single stone has occurred, a moment's thought will convince the reader that the ko rule can be engaged in only one situation:.

Restatement of the ko rule. One may not capture just one stone, if that stone was played on the previous move, and that move also captured just one stone.

Furthermore, this can occur only when one plays in the location at which one's stone was captured in the previous move. The two points where consecutive captures might occur, but for the ko rule, are said to be in ko.

For example, in the first two diagrams above, the points a and b are in ko. The next two examples involve capture and immediate recapture, but the ko rule is not engaged, because either the first or second capture takes more than one stone.

In the first diagram below, White must prevent Black from playing at a , and does this with 1 in the second diagram.

Black can capture the three stones in White 1's group by playing at b. Black does this with Black 2 in the third diagram. White may recapture Black 2 by playing at a again, because the resulting position, shown in the fourth diagram, has not occurred previously.

It differs from the position after White 1 by the absence of the two marked white stones. In the first diagram below, it is White's turn.

White must prevent Black from connecting the marked stones to the others by playing at a. The second diagram shows White's move. White is threatening to kill the marked black stones by playing at b.

In the third diagram, Black plays at b to prevent this, capturing White 1. However, by playing at a again, White can capture Black 2's group. This is not barred by the ko rule because the resulting position, shown in the fourth diagram, differs from the one after White 1 by the absence of the marked black stones.

This kind of capture is called a snapback. The next example is typical of real games. It shows how the ko rule can sometimes be circumvented by first playing elsewhere on the board.

The first diagram below shows the position after Black 1. White can capture the marked black stone by playing at a. The second diagram shows the resulting position.

Black cannot immediately recapture at b because of the ko rule. So Black instead plays 3 in the third diagram.

For reasons that will become clear, Black 3 is called a "ko threat". At this point, White could choose to connect at b , as shown in the first diagram below.

However, this would be strategically unsound, because Black 5 would guarantee that Black could eventually capture the white group altogether, no matter how White played.

Instead, White responds correctly to Black 3 with 4 in the first diagram below. Now, contrary to the situation after White 2, Black can legally play at b , because the resulting position, shown in the second diagram, has not occurred previously.

It differs from the position after Black 1 because of the presence of Black 3 and White 4 on the board. Now White is prohibited from recapturing at a by the ko rule.

White has no moves elsewhere on the board requiring an immediate reply from Black ko threats , so White plays the less urgent move 6, capturing the black stone at 3, which could not have evaded capture even if White had waited.

In the next diagram, Black connects at a before White has a chance to recapture. Both players pass and the game ends in this position. The game ends when both players have passed consecutively.

The final position the position later used to score the game is the position on the board at the time the players pass consecutively.

Since the position on the board at the time of the first two consecutive passes is the one used to score the game, Rule 9 can be said to require the players to "play the game out".

Under Rule 9, players must for example capture enemy stones even when it may be obvious to both players that they cannot evade capture.

Otherwise the stones are not considered to have been captured. Because Rule 9 differs significantly from the various systems for ending the game used in practice, a word must be said about them.

The precise means of achieving this varies widely by ruleset, and in some cases has strategic implications. These systems often use passing in a way that is incompatible with Rule 9.

For players, knowing the conventions surrounding the manner of ending the game in a particular ruleset can therefore have practical importance.

Under Chinese rules, and more generally under any using the area scoring system, a player who played the game out as if Rule 9 were in effect would not be committing any strategic errors by doing so.

They would, however, likely be viewed as unsportsmanlike for prolonging the game unnecessarily. On the other hand, under a territory scoring system like that of the Japanese rules, playing the game out in this way would in most cases be a strategic mistake.

In the final position, an empty intersection is said to belong to a player's territory if all stones adjacent to it or to an empty intersection connected to it are of that player's color.

Unless the entire board is empty, the second condition — that there be at least one stone of the kind required — is always satisfied and can be ignored.

On the other hand, it may well happen that an empty intersection belongs to neither player's territory. In that case the point is said to be neutral territory.

Japanese and Korean rules count some points as neutral where the basic rules, like Chinese rules, would not. In order to understand the definition of territory, it is instructive to apply it first to a position of a kind that might arise before the end of a game.

Let us assume that a game has ended in the position below [27] even though it would not normally occur as a final position between skilled players.

The point a is adjacent to a black stone. Therefore, a does not belong to White's territory. However, a is connected to b by the path shown in the diagram, among others , which is adjacent to a white stone.

Therefore, a does not belong to Black's territory either. In conclusion, a is neutral territory. The point c is connected to d , which is adjacent to a white stone.

But c is also connected to e , which is adjacent to a black stone. Therefore, c is neutral territory.

On the other hand, h is adjacent only to black stones and is not connected to any other points.

Therefore, h is black territory. For the same reason, i and j are black territory, and k is white territory.

It is because there is so much territory left to be claimed that skilled players would not end the game in the previous position.

The game might continue with White playing 1 in the next diagram. If the game ended in this new position, the marked intersections would become White's territory, since they would no longer be connected to an empty intersection adjacent to a black stone.

The game might end with the moves shown below. In the final position, the points marked a are black territory and the points marked b are white territory.

The point marked c is the only neutral territory left. In Japanese and Korean rules, the point in the lower right corner and the point marked a on the right side of the board would fall under the seki exception, in which they would be considered neutral territory.

In the final position, an intersection is said to belong to a player's area if either: Consider once again the final position shown in the last diagram of the section "Territory".

The following diagram illustrates the area of each player in that position. Points in a player's area are occupied by a stone of the corresponding color.

The lone neutral point does not belong to either player's area. A player's score is the number of intersections in their area in the final position.

For example, if a game ended as in the last diagram in the section "Territory", the score would be: Black 44, White The players' scores add to The scoring system described here is known as area scoring , and is the one used in the Chinese rules.

Different scoring systems exist. These determine the same winner in most instances. See the Scoring systems section below. If one player has a higher score than the other, then that player wins.

Otherwise, the game is drawn. The most prominent difference between rulesets is the scoring method. There are two main scoring systems: A third system stone scoring is rarely used today but was used in the past and has historical and theoretical interest.

Care should be taken to distinguish between scoring systems and counting methods. Only two scoring systems are in wide use, but there are two ways of counting using "area" scoring.

In territory scoring including Japanese and Korean rules a player's score is determined by the number of empty locations that player has surrounded minus the number of stones their opponent has captured.

Furthermore, Japanese and Korean rules have special provisions in cases of seki , though this is not a necessary part of a territory scoring system.

See " Seki " below. Typically, counting is done by having each player place the prisoners they have taken into the opponent's territory and rearranging the remaining territory into easy-to-count shapes.

In area scoring including Chinese rules , a player's score is determined by the number of stones that player has on the board plus the empty area surrounded by that player's stones.

There are several common ways in which to count the score all these ways will always result in the same winner:. In stone scoring, a player's score is the number of stones that player has on the board.

Play typically continues until both players have nearly filled their territories, leaving only the two eyes necessary to prevent capture.

If the game ends with both players having played the same number of times, then the score will be identical in territory and area scoring. AGA rules call for a player to give the opponent a stone when passing, and for White to play last passing a third time if necessary.

This "passing stone" does not affect the player's final area, but as it is treated like a prisoner in the territory scoring system, the result using a territory system is consequently the same as it would be using an area scoring system.

The results for stone and area scoring are identical if both sides have the same number of groups. Otherwise the results will differ by two points for each extra group.

Some older rules used area scoring with a "group tax" of two points per group; this will give results identical to those with stone scoring.

Customarily, when players agree that there are no useful moves left most often by passing in succession , they attempt to agree which groups are alive and which are dead.

If disagreement arises, then under Chinese rules the players simply play on. However, under Japanese rules, the game is already considered to have ended.

The players attempt to ascertain which groups of stones would remain if both players played perfectly from that point on.

These groups are said to be alive. In addition, this play is done under rules in which kos are treated differently from ordinary play.

If the players reach an incorrect conclusion, then they both lose. Unlike most other rulesets, the Japanese rules contain lengthy definitions of when groups are considered alive and when they are dead.

In fact, these definitions do not cover every situation that may arise. Some difficult cases not entirely determined by the rules and existing precedent must be adjudicated by a go tribunal.

The need for the Japanese rules to address the definition of life and death follows from the fact that in the Japanese rules, scores are calculated by territory rather than by area.

The rules cannot simply require a player to play on in order to prove that an opponent's group is dead, since playing in their own territory to do this would reduce their score.

Therefore, the game is divided into a phase of ordinary play, and a phase of determination of life and death which according to the Japanese rules is not technically part of the game.

To allow players of different skills to compete fairly, handicaps and komi are used. These are considered a part of the game and, unlike in many other games, they do not distort the nature of the game.

Players at all levels employ handicaps to make the game more balanced. In an "even", or non-handicap game, Black's initial advantage of moving first can be offset by komi compensation points: The correct value of komi to properly compensate for Black's advantage is controversial, but common values are 5.

In a handicap game, komi is usually set to 0. A handicap game with a handicap of 1 starts like an even game, but White receives only 0.

Before the 20th century, there was no komi system. When the great Shusaku was once asked how an important game came out, he said simply, "I had Black", implying that victory was inevitable.

As more people became aware of the significance of Black having the first move, komi was introduced. When it was introduced in Japanese Professional games, it was 4.

However, Black still had a better chance to win, so komi was increased to 5. In , the Japanese Go Association again increased the komi value to 6.

Handicaps are given by allowing the weaker player to take Black and declaring White's first few moves as mandatory "pass" moves.

In practice, this means that Black's first move is to place a certain number of stones usually the number is equal to the difference in the players' ranks on the board before allowing White to play.

Traditionally, the hoshi "star points" — strategically important intersections marked with small dots—are used to place these handicap stones.

When Black is only one rank weaker also known as one stone weaker, due to the close relationship between ranks and the handicap system , Black is given the advantage of playing Black, perhaps without komi, but without any mandatory White passes.

For rank differences from two through nine stones, the appropriate number of handicap stones are used. Beyond nine stones, the difference in strength between the players is usually considered great enough that the game is more a lesson where White teaches Black than a competition.

Thus, nine stones is the nominal upper limit on handicap stones regardless of the difference in rank although higher numbers of stones, up to 41 stones in some cases, may be given if the teacher wants a greater challenge.

Go was already an ancient game before its rules were codified, and therefore, although the basic rules and strategy are universal, there are regional variations in some aspects of the rules.

These definitions are given only loosely, since a number of complications arise when attempts are made to formalize the notion of life and death.

A group of stones of one color is said to be alive by seki or in seki if it is not independently alive, yet cannot be captured by the opponent.

For example, in the diagram above, the black and white groups each have only one eye. Hence they are not independently alive. However, if either Black or White were to play at the circled point, the other side would then capture their group by playing in its eye.

In this case both the black and white groups are alive by seki. In the diagram above, the circled point is not surrounded by stones of a single color, and accordingly is not counted as territory for either side irrespective of ruleset.

In more complex cases, as here, [29]. According to Japanese and Korean rules, such a point is nonetheless treated as neutral territory for scoring purposes.

Specifying a position involves only the current state of the board. It requires no indication of whose turn it is, nor any information relating to previous moves or states of the board.

This definition of "position" is used in Rule 8 "positional superko". Naturally, two stones are said to be adjacent if they occupy adjacent intersections.

Similarly, a stone and an intersection are adjacent if the stone occupies an intersection adjacent to that intersection. Two placed stones of the same color or two empty intersections are said to be connected if it is possible to draw a path from one to the other by passing only through adjacent intersections of the same state empty, occ.

The concept of connected stones is used to describe via the concept of liberties , defined below the conditions in which stones are captured by a move.

The concept of connected empty points is used only at the end of the game, to define a player's score. In the following position, the stones 1 and 7 are connected by the sequence of black stones 1, 2, The empty points a and k are connected by the sequence of empty points a , b , In fact, it is easy to see in this position that all the black stones are connected to each other and that all the empty points are connected to each other.

In the diagram, stones and empty points are marked with the same number or letter, respectively, whenever they are connected to each other. A chain is a set of one or more stones necessarily of the same color that are all connected to each other and that are not connected to any other stones.

Although it is not necessary to define the word chain in order to state the rules, the concept is important for an understanding of the game.

For example, Black and White each have four chains in the diagram above. Black has one three-stone chain, one two-stone chain, and two one-stone chains.

White has one four-stone chain and three one-stone chains. It follows from the definitions that any stone on the board belongs to exactly one chain.

Furthermore, saying that two distinct stones of the same color are connected is the same as saying that they belong to the same chain.

In a given position, a liberty of a stone is an empty intersection adjacent to that stone or adjacent to a stone which is connected to that stone.

In the above position, the points a , b , c , d , e , are the liberties of the black stone at 1. The result would have been the same if we had determined the liberties of Black 2, or of any other stone belonging to the black chain.

Since any two stones belonging to the same chain have the same liberties, we often speak of the liberties of that chain. For example, in the first diagram, the points a , b , c , d and e are the liberties of the lone black chain.

In the second diagram, the liberties of the black chain in the lower right are c , d and h. On their turn, a player may either pass by announcing "pass" and performing no action or play.

A play consists of the following steps performed in the prescribed order: A player may pass on any move. Usually, passing is beneficial only at the end of the game, when all territory has been claimed and further moves would be useless, or even harmful to a player's position.

The following three sections discuss the successive steps of a play in greater detail. Let us observe immediately however that, in view of Steps 2 and 3, all stones remaining on the board after any move must have at least one liberty.

Step 1 of a play. The player places a stone of their color on an empty intersection chosen subject to Rule 8 and, if it is in effect, to Optional Rule 7A.

As indicated by the reference to Rules 8 and 7A respectively the superko rule and prohibition of suicide, to be discussed later , there are some restrictions on the choice of point at which to play.

Once a stone has been played, it remains on the board in the same location, until the end of the game or until it is captured removed from the board as part of Step 2 or Step 3 of a play.

Step 2 of a play. After playing their stone a player removes from the board any stones of their opponent's color that have no liberties.

The diagrams below show the capture of a white stone by Black. To begin with, the white stone has a single liberty at a. By playing a stone at a , Black removes the last remaining liberty of the white stone.

It is subsequently removed from the board. At the edge of the board and especially in the corners, stones have fewer liberties to start with and are more easily captured.

Black captures the white chain by playing at a. The black stone is not captured, because the white stones are removed first, providing it with two liberties.

Black captures the marked white chain at the edge of the board by playing at a. Then White captures the black stone in the corner by playing at b.

Step 3 of a play. After playing their stone and capturing any opposing stones a player removes from the board any stones of their own color that have no liberties.

A play is illegal if one or more stones would be removed in Step 3 of that play. The removal of one or more stones in Step 3 is called self-capture , or suicide.

Before discussing self-capture further, let us note that most rulesets give effect to Optional Rule 7A, which prohibits it.

This means that, in those rulesets, any play which under the basic rules would require a self-capture to be performed is illegal.

We begin with an example which, it is emphasized, does not involve self-capture. When Black plays at a , the capture of the marked white stones results in the black chain at the bottom right acquiring liberties.

This move is legal with the same result whatever the rules. The previous example shows that it is important that Step 2 of a play capture precedes Step 3 self-capture.

If the order were reversed, then self-capture would occur here. It is not difficult to convince oneself that if a play results in the capture of opposing stones, self-capture does not occur.

We now present some examples of plays in which self-capture occurs. These moves would be illegal under the optional rule prohibiting suicide.

In this example, if Black plays at a , then the stone played by them is removed immediately. This move has the same effect on the position as a pass, though it would not allow White to end the game by passing next Rule 9.

The move is in any event illegal by Rule 8. This is the positional superko rule. This move might be legal under other versions of the superko rule.

In the next example, Black plays at a , resulting in the self-capture of the marked black stones. A play is illegal if it would have the effect after all steps of the play have been completed of creating a position that has occurred previously in the game.

Though a pass is a kind of "move", it is not a "play". Therefore, Rule 8 never bars a player from passing. Before going further, we state a consequence of Rule 8 called the ko rule:.

One may not play in such a way as to recreate the board position following one's previous move. Whereas Rule 8 prohibits repetition of any previous position, the ko rule prohibits only immediate repetition.

Rule 8 is known as the positional superko rule. The word "positional" is used to distinguish it from slightly different superko rules that are sometimes used.

While the ko rule is observed in all forms of go, not all rulesets have a superko rule. The practical effects of the ko rule and the superko rule are similar; situations governed by the superko rule but not by the ko rule arise relatively infrequently.

The superko rule is designed to ensure the game eventually comes to an end, by preventing indefinite repetition of the same positions.

While its purpose is similar to that of the threefold repetition rule of chess, it differs from it significantly in nature; the superko rule bans moves that would cause repetition, whereas chess allows such moves as one method of forcing a draw.

The ko rule has important strategic consequences in go. Some examples follow in which Rule 8 applies. These examples cover only the most important case, namely the ko rule.

The first diagram shows the board immediately after White has played at 1, and it is Black's turn. Black captures the marked white stone by playing at a.

If White responds by capturing at b with 3, the board position is identical to that immediately following White 1. White 3 is therefore prohibited by the ko rule.

As noted in the section "Self-capture", Rule 8 prohibits the suicide of a single stone. This is something of a triviality since such a move would not be strategically useful.

Taking it for granted that no suicide of a single stone has occurred, a moment's thought will convince the reader that the ko rule can be engaged in only one situation:.

Restatement of the ko rule. One may not capture just one stone, if that stone was played on the previous move, and that move also captured just one stone.

Furthermore, this can occur only when one plays in the location at which one's stone was captured in the previous move.

The two points where consecutive captures might occur, but for the ko rule, are said to be in ko. For example, in the first two diagrams above, the points a and b are in ko.

The next two examples involve capture and immediate recapture, but the ko rule is not engaged, because either the first or second capture takes more than one stone.

In the first diagram below, White must prevent Black from playing at a , and does this with 1 in the second diagram.

Black can capture the three stones in White 1's group by playing at b. Black does this with Black 2 in the third diagram. White may recapture Black 2 by playing at a again, because the resulting position, shown in the fourth diagram, has not occurred previously.

It differs from the position after White 1 by the absence of the two marked white stones. In the first diagram below, it is White's turn.

White must prevent Black from connecting the marked stones to the others by playing at a. The second diagram shows White's move. White is threatening to kill the marked black stones by playing at b.

In the third diagram, Black plays at b to prevent this, capturing White 1. However, by playing at a again, White can capture Black 2's group.

This is not barred by the ko rule because the resulting position, shown in the fourth diagram, differs from the one after White 1 by the absence of the marked black stones.

This kind of capture is called a snapback. The next example is typical of real games. It shows how the ko rule can sometimes be circumvented by first playing elsewhere on the board.

The first diagram below shows the position after Black 1. White can capture the marked black stone by playing at a.

The second diagram shows the resulting position. Black cannot immediately recapture at b because of the ko rule.

So Black instead plays 3 in the third diagram. For reasons that will become clear, Black 3 is called a "ko threat". At this point, White could choose to connect at b , as shown in the first diagram below.

However, this would be strategically unsound, because Black 5 would guarantee that Black could eventually capture the white group altogether, no matter how White played.

Instead, White responds correctly to Black 3 with 4 in the first diagram below. Now, contrary to the situation after White 2, Black can legally play at b , because the resulting position, shown in the second diagram, has not occurred previously.

It differs from the position after Black 1 because of the presence of Black 3 and White 4 on the board. Now White is prohibited from recapturing at a by the ko rule.

White has no moves elsewhere on the board requiring an immediate reply from Black ko threats , so White plays the less urgent move 6, capturing the black stone at 3, which could not have evaded capture even if White had waited.

In the next diagram, Black connects at a before White has a chance to recapture. Both players pass and the game ends in this position.

The game ends when both players have passed consecutively. The final position the position later used to score the game is the position on the board at the time the players pass consecutively.

Since the position on the board at the time of the first two consecutive passes is the one used to score the game, Rule 9 can be said to require the players to "play the game out".

Under Rule 9, players must for example capture enemy stones even when it may be obvious to both players that they cannot evade capture.

Otherwise the stones are not considered to have been captured. Because Rule 9 differs significantly from the various systems for ending the game used in practice, a word must be said about them.

The precise means of achieving this varies widely by ruleset, and in some cases has strategic implications. Es geht darum, durch Umzingeln mit seinen Steinen auf dem Brett mehr Gebiete in Besitz zu nehmen als das zur gleichen Zeit dem Gegner gelingt.

Go wird normalerweise auf einem 19xBrett gespielt. Für Trainingszwecke und Blitzpartien sind aber kleinere Bretter 9x9, 11x11, 13x13, 15x15 üblich.

Zwei direkt benachbarte Steine einer Farbe nennt man verbunden. Verbindungen können auch länger sein, man spricht daher von Ketten.

Über eine Linie benachbarte leere Felder nennt man Freiheiten. Verbundene Ketten teilen sich ihre Freiheiten. Die schwarze Kette rechts hat 6 Freiheiten.

Schlagen Steine und Ketten des Gegeners können geschlagen werden, indem alle ihre Freiheiten besetzt werden.

Selbstmord-Verbot Es ist verboten, einen Stein so zu ziehen, dass eine eigene Kette ohne Freiheit entsteht! Es ist aber manchmal möglich auf ein Feld ohne Freiheiten zu ziehen, wenn direkt durch den Zug gegnerische Steine geschlagen werden und somit Freiheiten entstehen!

Im Bild darf Schwarz nicht auf den blauen Schnittpunkt ziehen, da seine Steine sonst keine Freiheiten mehr haben. Augen und Leben Augen sind Gebiete, die durch eigene Ketten so umschlossen sind, dass der Gegener nicht mehr hineinziehen kann.

Durch die Selbstmordregel ist ein Auge nur mehr schlagbar, wenn die zugehörige Kette komplett umzingelt wird. Die Abbildung oben bei "Selbstmord-Verbot" zeigt ein schwarzes Auge.

Schwarz hat 1 Auge. Unter den Blinden ist der Einäugige König! Es geht aber noch besser: Hat man eine Kombination von 2 oder mehr Augen , so sind die zugehörigen Ketten nicht mehr schlagbar: Solche Konstellationen nennt man lebendig.

Sie sind wichtig, denn alle Steine, die mit lebendigen Gruppen verbunden sind, sind ihrerseits lebendig, können also nicht mehr geschlagen werden!

Augen und Leben sind zentrale Konzepte des Go-Spiels. Sie sind zwar keine Regel, aber eine grundlegende Folge der Regeln. In der Praxis werden allerdings Augen oft nicht gebaut, da der fortgeschrittene Spieler erkennt, ob eine bestimmte Konstellation in 2 oder mehr Augen verwandelt werden kann.

Schwarz hat zwei Augen und lebt. Players alternate turns placing a stone of their color on an empty intersection.

The winner is the first player to form an unbroken chain of five stones horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. It originated in Japan during the Heian period [ citation needed ].

Go means five , moku is a counter word for pieces and narabe means line-up. The Japanese call this game Go-moku five stones.

Besides many variations around the world, the Swap2 rule based on "swap" from Renju is currently adapted in tournaments among professional players, including Gomoku World Championships.

In Swap2 rule, the first player starts by placing three stones 2 black 1 white, if black goes first on the board.

The second player next can select one of these three options: Swap2 solved the low complexity problem [5] and makes the game fairer.

Black the player who makes the first move was long known to have a big advantage, even before L. Victor Allis proved that black could force a win see below.

So a number of variations are played with extra rules that aimed to reduce black's advantage. The opening moves show clearly black's advantage.

An open row of three one that is not blocked by an opponent's stone at either end has to be blocked immediately, or countered with a threat elsewhere on the board.

If not blocked or countered, the open row of three will be extended to an open row of four, which threatens to win in two ways.

White has to block open rows of three at moves 10, 14, 16 and 20, but black only has to do so at move 9. Move 20 is a blunder for white it should have been played next to black Black can now force a win against any defence by white, starting with move There are two forcing sequences for black, depending on whether white 22 is played next to black 15 or black The diagram on the right shows the first sequence.

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